Research paper| Volume 24, ISSUE 2, P98-106, May 2019

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Analysis of Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths mixed infections among pupils in Enugu State, Nigeria: Implications for control

Published:January 22, 2019DOI:


      • The overall prevalence rate of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections were 19.9% and 64.4% respectively.
      • 58.1% of the pupils were found positive for at least either Schistosomiasis or soil-transmitted helminth infection.
      • Mixed infection was observed in 11.0% of the school children.
      • Overall, prevalence of infection was higher in males than in females for all Schistosoma and STH infections.



      Schistosomiasis and Soil-transmitted helminthiasis cause considerable morbidity and mortality in developing countries, especially among children. To this end it, a cross-sectional survey to determine the pattern of Schistosomiasis and Soil-transmitted helminthiasis co-infection was undertaken among primary school pupils in Oduma Community in Enugu State, Nigeria.


      Fresh urine and stool samples were collected from pupils. The urine and stool samples were examined using sedimentation and Kat-Katz techniques respectively.


      Of the 236 pupils examined, 137 (58.1%) were found positive for at least one helminth infection. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent soil-transmitted helminth (STH), with a prevalence rate of 40.3%, followed by Trichuris trichiura (15.3%) and hookworm (8.9%). Infection with Schistosoma haematobium was detected in 13.6% of the pupils while Schistosoma mansoni infection prevalence was 7.2%. Age group 4 -7 years recorded the highest prevalence for S. haematobium, A. lumbricoides, T. Trichiura and hookworm infections. Multiple infections were also recorded, with 22.9% having double infections and 2.5% having triple infections. The most common double infection was A. lumbricoides with T. trichiura (8.9%), while the most common triple infection was A. lumbricoides, S. haematobium and hookworm (1.7%).


      The results from the present study revealed an evident need for the systematic and sustained administration of school-based chemotherapy program targeting the control of STH infection and Schistosomiasis using Albendazole and Praziquantel respectively in the community, instead of a one-off approach that was carried out.


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